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"They said I won't gain muscle mass after 40, but is it really true? Can someone over 40 still build and maintain muscle?"

Sarcopenia, the natural decline in muscle mass, starts as early as 30, but resistance training can slow it down.

After 40, muscle mass decline accelerates, but regular exercise can still promote muscle growth.

Resistance training stimulates muscle protein synthesis, which helps build muscle, regardless of age.

Muscle fibers change with age; type II fibers, responsible for explosive power, decline earlier, while type I fibers, for endurance, remain relatively preserved.

After 40, hormone levels, like testosterone and growth hormone, decrease, affecting muscle growth and maintenance.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels also decline with age, impacting muscle growth.

Chronic inflammation, common in older adults, can impede muscle growth and maintenance.

Age-related changes in the nervous system affect neural drive, influencing muscle function and growth.

Muscle memory, developed through repeated exercise, helps maintain muscle mass even with age-related decline.

High-intensity resistance training (HIT) is effective for building muscle in older adults, as it stimulates muscle protein synthesis.

Progressive overload, gradually increasing weight or resistance, is essential for muscle growth, regardless of age.

Eccentric exercises, like negatives, can be particularly effective for older adults, as they promote muscle growth with lower joint stress.

Older adults may require more recovery time between exercise sessions due to decreased muscle recovery rates.

Adequate protein intake, especially after exercise, supports muscle growth and maintenance in older adults.

Vitamin D levels, often deficient in older adults, influence muscle function and growth.

Omega-3 fatty acids, abundant in fish oil supplements, may help reduce muscle inflammation and promote growth.

Good sleep quality, often disrupted in older adults, is essential for muscle recovery and growth.

Chronic stress, prevalent in older adults, can impede muscle growth and maintenance through cortisol's negative impact on muscle protein synthesis.

Age-related differences in body composition, like increased fat mass, affect muscle growth and maintenance.

Genetic factors, such as polymorphisms in the ACTN3 gene, influence muscle growth and function in older adults.

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